In today’s challenging, competitive arena; organizations should have qualified human resources in order to survive and gain competitive advantage. Retaining such qualified personnel is another issue that organizations face. The transformation from traditional personnel management to human resource management has not been enough to meet the changing expectations of today’s workers and overcome the challenges of changing external conditions. Structural changes that are conducted solely are not enough to transform organizations. In order to survive and meet the challenges of changing world, organizations have to deal with human resources from a strategic perspective as human is the initiator of a change/transformation process. In this regard; strategic human resource management concept and the perspectives developed to explain it, has been studied in this conceptual paper. Besides vertical and horizontal fit and their determinants are also discussed to understand the evolution of the concept better.