Buildings suffer from disasters such as earthquakes, floods and fire over time. These disasters cause deterioration and damage to structures. Different techniques are applied according to reinforced concrete, masonry and prefabricated building types. In addition, different strengthening application techniques are used in historical and cultural masonry structures. It should be implemented in a manner that will make the least intervention in building types with historical and cultural heritage and will not harm the identity of the building. Thanks to today's technological possibilities, determining the damage to existing structures becomes faster. Therefore, the aim of the study is to present a comprehensive review of the role of today's technologies in determining the damages caused by earthquakes and the criteria that affect the strengthening of buildings. Appropriate strengthening is applied according to the magnitude of the building damage caused by the possible earthquake. Destructive and non-destructive testing methods are used to determine the damage to the buildings. Especially for buildings with historical and cultural heritage, non-destructive testing methods are used to determine the damage. Thanks to these methods, it is ensured that major damages that may occur in the future are prevented.