Malaria causes the most deaths among other epidemic diseases. Malaria was first detected in Anatolian territory in 18th Century; and was one of the most important health problems dealt with by the Ottoman State in 19th Century. In this period, some precautions were taken to fight against malaria and to avoid its spread by the state. Just before the 1st World War and during the war years, malaria was seen as an epidemic and in an efficient way. During the war years, many people lost their lives both in the army and in the civil society. In this period, although some regulations and laws were enacted to fight against malaria with limited opportunities, these efforts became inadequate with the start of the National Struggle. Half of the population was infected with malaria during the National Struggle years, and hundred-thousands of people were left behind the war, work and fields. One year after the proclamation of the Republic, malaria epidemic became a disaster, death reached serious dimensions; briefly stated, it affected all aspects of life in a negative way. In this situation, the state started to deal with this problem; and in 1924, a report was prepared by the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity to fight against malaria. In the present study, the report, which was prepared to fight against malaria and avoid its spread, was dealt with in all its details. The study also included the Malaria and Swamp Map of Turkey, which was prepared in 1924, and the swam neighborhoods, areas with malaria, areas where rice and cannabis were grown, the estimated borders of the neighborhoods where malaria was seen in a severe level, and the individual villages where malaria was detected were determined.