INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HUMANITIES SCIENCES RESEARCH (JSHSR)

ÇOCUK İÇİN CEZA MEKANLARI
(PUNİSHMENT SPACES FOR JUVENİLE )

Author : Gevher SAYAR  & Yavuz ARAT  
Type :
Printing Year : 2018
Number : 24
Page : 1407-1421
279    307


Summary

Suç-ceza kavramları ve insanlık tarihi beraber var olmuştur. Suç kavramı zaman içerisindeki sözlü-yazılı kurallara göre şekillenmişlerdir. Ceza kavramında zaman içerisinde bedensel cezaların yerini hürriyeti bağlayıcı cezalar almıştır. Hürriyeti bağlayıcı cezalarla beraber hapishaneler-cezaevleri oluşmuştur. Kapatılma mekanlarında ilk olarak toplum tarafından kabul görmeyen gruplar kalmaktayken daha sonra bu mekanlar suçlular için tasarlanan mekanlar olmuşlardır. 17. yüzyıla kadar çocukluk olgusu yoktur. 17. yüzyıldan sonra çocukluk kavramının varlığı kabul görmüştür. Çocukluk kabul gördükten sonra çocuk suçluluğu üzerine birçok düşünce ileri sürülmüştür. Düşünceler, teoriler ve kanunlar sonucu çocuk suçluluğu ve yetişkin suçluluğu birbirinden farklı kavramlar olarak kabul edilmiştir. Çocuklar yetişkinlerin öğrettikleri kadar suçun farkındalardır. Çocukların suça itilme sebepleri çocuklara suçun tam olarak öğretilmemesinden kaynaklanmaktadır. Bu sebeple çocukların suç işlemiş olmaları sonucu çocuklara ceza vermek yerine çocuklar topluma kazandırılmalılardır. Çocukların topluma geri kazandırılması için belirli fiziksel-psikolojik mekanlar içerisinde yetişmesi gerekmektedir. Çalışma kapsamında Türkiye’de suça itilmiş çocukların kapatıldığı mekanlar tespit edilmiştir. Tespit edilen mekanların mekânsal analizi yapılmıştır.



Keywords
Cezaevleri, Çocuk Cezaevleri, Islahevleri, Suç ve Ceza, Suça İtilmiş Çocuklar

Abstract

Concepts of crime and punishment have existed with the history of humanity. There are verbal and written rules that shape the way people live. The concept of crime is shaped by the verbal and written rules in time and time itself. Failing to fulfill the verbal or written rules for preventing corruption of the social order is called crime. There are many different definitions of crime. In the concept of punishment, first of all, physical punishments are used. Over time, bodily punishment is evolved into the punishment that restricted the freedom. Along with the punishments that restricted the freedom the prisons have been formed. When the criminal, the homeless, the street children were united by the society at first in the places of closure, then these places turned into private spaces designed for criminals. Throughout history, the concept of childhood has been defined in various forms. In the seventeenth century, childhood began to be regarded as a different stage. After the seventeenth century, the existence of the concept of childhood was accepted. The twentieth century was accepted as a child's century. After being accepted as a childhood case, many opinions have been put forward on juvenile delinquency. As a result of theories, theories and laws, juvenile delinquency and adult juvenile delinquency are regarded as different concepts. Children are as aware of crime as adults teach. The causes for criminalized children are children are not fully taught of crime and children are not fully exploiting children's rights. Since the children are deprived for their basic needs of family in peace, love, interest and education; the qualified social environment and are influenced by the individual factors which are biological-physical and psychological factors, they were criminalized. For this reason, children should be recuperated instead of punishment for the offending crime. Because children are not guilty of crime, it is the society. Children must be grow in certain physical and psychological facilities in order to be gained into society. Within the scope of this study; juvenile punishment places have been identified in Turkey. In Turkey, prisons are the type of project described with letters. In Turkey, three different groups of prisons were detected. These are E type, C type, M Type, Juvenile Closed and BTOK prisons are the from closed prisons and A Type, A2 type, A3 type, K1 type, K2 type prisons, and children 's education institute from the open prison which is affiliated with the closed penal execution institutions. 4 prisons with children's (juvenile) section in Turkey has been selected as the sample of the study. These are; A Type, K2 Type and Juvenile (Child) Education House are examples of open prisons connected to the office of the closed penal execution institutions. Within the scope of the study, the spatial analysis of the existing prisons and the result of spatial analysis questionnaires with 18 psychologists have used to determine the necessary conditions for juvenile prison spaces. The pros and cons of the children's punishment places (spaces) have been determined through the evaluation of the 4-selected juvenile prison. As a result, the punishment places for juveniles should be improved in order for gaining these children back to society and restoring them to life.



Keywords
Prisons, Juvenile Prisons, Detention Centers, Crime and Punishment, Criminalized Children

© 2019 Amentojourn. All Rights Reserved