Panik Bozukluğu Tedavisinde Bilişsel ve Davranışçı Psikoterapilerin Etkinliği


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Yazarlar

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10616513

Anahtar Kelimeler:

panik bozukluğu, agorafobi, bilişsel ve davranışçı terapiler, maruz bırakma, bilişsel yeniden yapılandırma, nefes ve gevşetme eğitimi, meta-analiz

Özet

Panik atak fiziksel ve bilişsel belirtilerin olduğu, yoğun bir korku veya içsel sıkıntının oluştuğu durumlardır. Panik bozukluğu ise, tekrarlayıcı ve beklenmedik panik atakların var olduğu bir psikolojik güçlüktür. Panik bozukluk tedavisinde sıklıkla kullanılan psikoterapi yaklaşımı bilişsel ve davranışçı psikoterapilerdir. Bilişsel ve davranışçı psikoterapilerde panik bozukluğu için sıklıkla kullanılan teknikler ise maruz bırakma (yerinde veya interoseptif), bilişsel yeniden yapılandırma, nefes ve gevşeme eğitimidir. Bu yazıda panik bozukluğunda bilişsel ve davranışçı model ele alınmış, bilişsel ve davranışçı yöntemlerin teorik alt yapılarından bahsedilmiştir. Ayrıca döküman analizi yöntemi kullanılarak panik bozukluğu tedavisinde bilişsel ve davranışçı terapilerin etkisini araştıran 15 meta-analizin incelenmesiyle, bu tedavinin ve tedavi bileşenlerin iyileşmeye sağladığı etkinin anlaşılması amaçlanmıştır. Bilişsel ve davranışçı terapilerin etkileri diğer tedavilerle kıyaslanmış, tedavi bileşenlerinin iyileşme sağlamada ne kadar etkili oldukları incelenmiş ve bulgular doğrultusunda etkili tedavi yöntemleri tartışılmıştır. Randomize kontrollü klinik araştırmaların sonuçlarını istatistiksel yöntemler kullanarak bir araya getiren meta-analiz sonuçları panik bozukluğu için bilişsel ve davranışçı terapilerin etkili tedaviler olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca daha etkili tedavinin interoseptif maruz bırakma bileşenini içerdiği ortaya konmaktadır. Bilişsel yeniden yapılanma gibi diğer bileşenlerin tedaviye dahil edilmesinin tedavi sonucu üzerinde düşük bir etkiye sahip olduğunu ve kas gevşetme eğitiminin tedaviye dahil edilmesinin tedavinin genel etkinliğini etkilemediğini göstermektedir. Kullanılan tedavi bileşenlerinin hangisinin hem kısa hem uzun vadeli olarak iyileşmeye daha fazla katkı sağladığının ve maliyet etkinliklerinin incelenmesinin, danışanlara psikoterapi hizmeti verirken en etkin ve daha az maliyetli tedaviyi seçebilme açısından önem teşkil edeceği düşülmektedir.

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Yayınlanmış

2024-01-31

Nasıl Atıf Yapılır

Aydın Yeral, Şule. (2024). Panik Bozukluğu Tedavisinde Bilişsel ve Davranışçı Psikoterapilerin Etkinliği. International Journal of Social and Humanities Sciences Research (JSHSR), 11(103), 01–14. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10616513